Acetic acid bacteria (AAB)
Bacteria that cause the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid during fermentation. They are responsible for the creation of vinegar.
The process by which yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
A protected geographic area designating the provenance of a wine, be it AOC/AOP (Appellation d'Orgine Contrôllée/Protégée) in France.
A type of very traditional, holistic farming developed by Rudolf Steiner in the 1920's.
Copper sulfate, lime and water mixture used as a fungicide
Botte (plural Botti)
Italian term meaning a big wine barrel or wooden cask.
A yeast strain. When this strain is present in large numbers it can dominate the wine, at which point, aromatically speaking, it becomes a problem creating overpowering aromas of farmyard or salami. Often misrepresented, it is used in some beer and kombucha as a primary yeast.
Adding sugar to grape juice to artificially produce more alcohol.
A generic French word used to describe any "batch" of wine, be it a blend or a single bottling.
The removal of sediments in the final stages of some sparkling wine production.
French word for the care of wine up until bottling
Quickens the precipitation of tiny particles (tannins, proteins, etc.), which are in suspension in the wine, using a variety of agents, including egg white, milk, fish derivative, clay, algae, oxblood etc.
A film of yeast that can develop on the surface of maturing wine, which is essential to the production of sherry (Spain) and vin jaune (Jura).
A French word for a large oak barrel.
An agricultural revolution that took place in the mid-20th century, which radically increased total crop production worldwide through technological developments in the use of high-yielding varieties, pesticides, and synthetic fertilizers.
10,000 square meters (equivalent to just under 2.5 acres).
Also called ambient, this the yeast population that is naturally present in the vineyard and the winery.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)
Bacteria responsible for malolactic fermentation in wine, during which harsh malic acid is transformed into softer lactic acid.
Sediments made of dead yeast cells and other fermentation residues that collect at the bottom of vats/barrels/bottles.
Soaking or steeping grapes in their juice.
Also knows as malo or MLF, malic acid (naturally contained in grape juice) is converted into lactic acid during the winemaking process, sometimes before, but mostly during or after, the alcoholic fermentation.
Grape concentrate that is used in some conventional winemaking to add color or sweetness to a wine.
An off flavor reminiscent of peanut butter or milk that has gone off.
Freshly pressed grape juice
A producer who buys in grapes or wine and bottles under their own label.
Noble rot (Botrytis cinerea)
A good fungus that develops on grape berries, concentrating their sweetness. Noble rot is also responsible for complex aromas in sweet-wine production.
When wine or must is exposed to too much oxygen, it can spoil and develop pronounced nutty and caramelized notes.
Large clay pots buried underground and used for the fermentation and maturation of wines in t traditional Georgian winemaking.
When residual fermentable sugar starts to ferment again in the bottle.
A very sophisticated, high-tech, selective wine filtration system that can remove volatile acidity, water, alcohol, smoke taint, etc.
Occasionally, during maturation or once bottles, wine can go through a stage where bacteria render the wine oily in texture.
Filtering wine so tightly (down to .45 Q) that yeast and bacteria are eliminated.
Naturally occurring antioxidants in wine. Resveratrol is a stilbene.
Wine additive widely used for their antibacterial effects, among others.
Naturally contained in grape stems, pips, and skins. Contribute to the sensation of astringency in wines (think strong black tea). Can also be extracted from oak during winemaking.
Tartrate crystals (Wine diamonds)
Also knows as cream of tartar. This is the potassium acid salt or tartaric acid. Also knows as wine diamonds.
The complete natural environment in which a particular wine is produced, including factors such as the soil, topography, climate, and even natural yeast in natural wine.
A wine merchant, or winemaker.
The science of farming vines (specific to grape growing).